Supergene Mineralization at the Kori Kollo Gold Mine, Bolivia
Exploration & Mining Geology, Vol. 6, No. 3, 1997
The Kori Kollo gold deposit is hosted by a c.15 Ma sericitized dacite stock in the La Joya district on the Bolivian Altiplano. The mineralization is of the Bolivian polymetallic vein (BPV) type, with a significant amount of the gold reserves contained in the oxide cap. Field and microscopic studies, K-Ar dating, ??34S values of pyrite, alunite and jarosite, and ??18O values of alunite and jarosite demonstrate that some of this gold is supergene. Two types of supergene gold are present: minute gold grains, 1 to 10 microns across, of high fineness and associated with jarosite and iron oxy-hydroxides; and ‘invisible’ gold, which is probably sorbed onto minerals such as jarosite and iron oxy-hydroxides. Pyrite ??34S values fall in the limited range -3.5 ± 0.6‰, consistent with a magmatic origin. Sulfate ??34S values are homogeneous and overlap closely with those of pyrite (-1.2 ± 2.1‰), which supports petrographic evidence that sulfates replaced pyrite. By contrast, sulfate ??18O values are inhomogeneous with a large range (alunite +2 to 26‰, jarosite -5 to +18‰). These data are interpretedas reflecting kinetically controlled reactions involving various proportions of atmospheric oxygen and local meteoric water. This is typical of supergene alteration and is due to the seasonally dry climate of the Altiplano. The oxide-zone mineralogy is dominated by sulfates and iron oxy hydroxide minerals with some phosphates and halides, which indicates that the groundwaters were acidic, oxidizing and relatively saline. Under these conditions the most likely complexes responsible for gold mobilization are halides. Geological data and K-Ar ages indicate that oxidation of the BPV deposits began at least around11 Ma and possibly up to 15 Ma ago, and that supergene alteration lasted until around 4 Ma. During this period, erosion was minimal. Although supergene processes have been active on the Bolivian Altiplano since the Middle Miocene, in contrast to Northern Chile, enrichment of gold has not occurred.
Kori Kollo gold deposit, Mineralization, Bolivian polymetallic vein, Oxide-zone mineralogy