Precious-metal-bearing Volcanogenic Massive Sulfide Deposits, Campo Morado, Guerrero, Mexico

Exploration & Mining Geology, Vol. 6, No. 2, 1997

The Campo Morado precious-metal-bearing, volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits occur in a lower Cretaceous, bimodal, calc-alkaline volcanic sequence in a major northerly trending belt in the Guerrero Terrane in northeastern Guerrero, Mexico. During upper Cretaceous to Early Tertiary greenschist-facies regional metamorphism, the rocks were deformed strongly into a northeast verging fold-and-thrust belt. Three later stages of weak deformation were dominated, respectively, by kink folds, broad warps, and extensional faults. Most deposits occur in the upper part of a sequence of felsic flows and heterolithic volcanoclastic rocks or at its contact with overlying chert and argillite-sandstone. The Reforma and El Rey massive sulfide deposits are on the overturned limb of a major, thrusted anticline, and the Naranjo and El Largo massive sulfide deposits are to the south on the upright limb of the same major fold. The La Lucha and San Rafael massive sulfide occurrences are in an upper plate to the southwest which was thrusted over the plate containing the Naranjo and El Largo deposits. In several of the deposits, Au, Ag, Zn, and Pb are concentrated near the stratigraphic top, and Cu is concentrated near the stratigraphic base. Major minerals are pyrite, quartz, ankerite, sphalerite, chalcopyrite, and galena. Minor minerals are tennantite-freibergite, arsenopyrite, and pyrrhotite. Gold and Ag occur in argentian gold, and Ag also occurs in tennantite freibergite. The cumulative inferred resource of massive sulfide for the Reforma, Naranjo, El Rey, and El Largo deposits exceeds 30 Mt, with the latter two deposits incompletely delineated. Underlying pyrite-quartz stockwork zones contain chalcopyrite, chlorite, and sphalerite. Hydrothermal alteration minerals in the stratigraphic footwall are pyrite, quartz, chlorite, ferroan dolomite, and ankerite. In the stratigraphic hangingwall, hydrothermal alteration minerals are sericite, calcite-dolomite, and lesser clay minerals and quartz. The deposits belong to a low-sulfidation, volcanogenic massive sulfide system formed in a subaqueous environment, and are of the bimodal, siliciclastic type.
Mots Clés: Precious metals, Sulfide deposits, Volcanic, Mexico, Minerals