Effect of Mining Exploitation on the Ground Surf ace and Structures 1n Heavily Industrialized and Populated Areas
Prof. Zygmunt Kowalczyk The Academy of Mining and Me tallurgy, Kra kow, Poland
A theory permitting the determination of expected surface
deformations for planned underground exploitation
is proposed and discussed in this paper.
The relations between surface s ubsidence and various
methods of mining are analyzed, and allowable horizontal
.deformations for protected objects, according to the degree
of their significance, are reviewed.
Coal, coal, exploitation, subsidence, trough, Upper Silesia, deformation, Deformations, Displacement, Exploitation, mining, Safety pillars, Shafts, Subsidence