Subsurface Disposal of Liquid Industrial Wastes
J. A. VONHOF and R. 0. van EVERDIN.GEN, Hydrology Research Division, Inland Waters Directorate, Calgary, Alberta
Since 1949, a total of 59 disposal wells have been installed in Canada to inject liquid wastes from refineries, mining operations and chemical plants into subsurface formations at an ever-increasing rate. Well depths range from around 600 feet to almost 5,500 feet; injection rates range from 0.5 (U.S.) gpm to more than 1,000 gpm for individual wells; wellhead injection pressures range from a slight vacuum to over 500 psi. Apart from strictly technical considerations of well design, the geological, hydrodynamic and hydrochemical conditions at the disposal site have a strong bearing on the safety and success of such operations. Prevailing hydrogeological conditions in large portions of the country do not allow safe subsurface disposal.
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