Structural control of gold mineralization at the Sigma Mine, Val d'Or, Quebec

CIM Bulletin, Vol. 76, No. 850, 1983

FRANCOIS ROBERT and ALEX C. BROWN, Ecole Polytechnique, Universite de Montreal, Montreal, Quebec , ANDRE J. AUDET, Les mines Sigma (Quebec) Ltee, Val d'Or, Quebec

The Sigma gold deposit is in a band of deformed metavolcanic rocks that are cut by an irregular mass of porphyritic diorite and by narrow undeformed feldspar porphyry dykes. The gold is in veins consisting mainly of quartz and tourmaline with minor pyrite, carbonate, chlorite, scheelite and free gold. The results presented here concern the structural setting of the ore and are based on a study of the mode of emplacement. Two principal types of veins have been recognized: sub-vertical and oblique veins. Both types are contemporaneous, mechanically linked and postdate regional deformation. The sub-vertical veins are composed of numerous mineralized lenses that occupy the central part of ductile shear zones of great lateral and vertical extent. Normally, several lenses occur in the same shear zone. The vein material seems to have resulted from incremental filling of openings by repeated vertical movement along rupture planes developed in the central part of the shear zones. The oblique veins are small elliptical lenses of ribboned vein material which formed essentially by progressive vertical opening of oblique fractures. Two types of oblique veins are known: one is restricted to feldspar porphyry dykes, within which they are arranged in an en-echelon fashion; the other is of greater extent and is not restricted to one rock type, but tends, however, to occur in the more competent porphyritic diorite. Vein orientation and mode of formation suggest that both sub-vertical and oblique veins developed during progressive deformation associated with the formation of the ductile shear zones. The latter probably formed in response to a compression that took place late in the tectonic history of the host rocks at Sigma.
Keywords: Gold deposits, Abitibi gold deposits, Sigma Mine, Mineralization, Structural geology, Veins, Shear zones.