Nickel Refining in Finland

CIM Bulletin, 1964

Toivo Toivanen Manager, Outokumpu Oy, Harjavalta Works, Harja valta and Per Olov Gronqvist Superintendent, Outokumpu Oy, Nickel Refinery, Harjavalta, Finland

The paper begins with a brief history of the nickel industry in Finland, and then deals with the introduction of the flash smelting process. The main part of the paper is devoted to nickel refining, which is studied under four main headings - grinding, leaching, electrolyte precipitation, and nickel electrowinning. Flowsheets are illustrated, and the equipment used is described. Analyses of the material in the various stages, from concentrate to high-grade nickel matte, are also presented
Keywords: Concentrate, Concentrates, copper, copper, electrowinning, flash smelting, Nickel Matte, sulphuric acid, Electrowinning, leaching, nickel, Process, Processes