Hangingwall sloughing mechanism in open stope mining
CIM Bulletin, Vol. 95, No. 1064, 2002
Hangingwall sloughing is the major cause of unplanned stope dilution in open stope mining. Understanding the hangingwall sloughing mechanism can guide the stope design in minimizing the unplanned dilution and improving muck size and therefore mining efficiency. Though the modified stability graph method may be adopted to assess the hangingwall stability, for mines where the hangingwall is inaccessible, the required parameters are difficult to define and some of the simple influential factors cannot be easily identified in this method to provide guidelines for stope design. This paper identifies the main modes of hangingwall sloughing in open stope mining based on detailed data collected from mined-out stopes and site observations, applies the voussoir beam notation to analysis of the hangingwall sloughing mechanism, compares the model analysis results with the collected stope data, and provides guidelines for stope design and model application. Finally, examples are given to demonstrate the time and support effects on hangingwall sloughing and stope dilution.
Hangingwall, Voussoir beam, Sloughing, Muck quality, Dilution.