Environments of Gold Mineralization in the Campbell Red I.Jake and Dickenson Mines, Red Lake District, Ontario

Special Volume, Vol. SV 24, No. 1982, 1982

The gold ore zones of the Campbell and Dickenson mines occur within a km-wide, 2 km-long zone of highly altered and anomalously fissile and deformed volcanic and subvolcanic intrusive rocks, cut by a series of mainly post-deformation mafic and quartz-feldspar porphyry felsic dykes. Three main periods of gold ore-forming hydrothermal activity are recognized. In the first, the mine rocks were extensively altered and gold and arsenic enriched; syn-volcanic auriferous veinlet and low-grade chemical sedimentary ores were deposited in what was a major discharge zone of a submarine hydrothermal system. The chemical sedimentary ores are closely associated spatially and temporally with domal rhyolitic extrusions. Because of its mechanical and chemical properties, this synvolcanic alteration zone became the locus of later deformation, and the site of the generation of auriferous hydrothermal solutions, perhaps by pressure solution processes at depth. These solutions deposited, synchronously with deformation and metamorphism, the second and most economically important type of ore zones in the mine: large foliation-parallel and foliation oblique banded carbonate- 'chert' Rssure-filling veins. In the third and final mineralizing event, high-grade, pipeshaped zones of siliceous replacement-type mineralization, and quartz-arsenopyrite-gold veins, were superimposed on the previous mineralization types after most of the deformation, but before the emplacement of the late dykes. The source of heat and also possibly the fluids for the third mineralizing period may have been the dyke-forming igneous activity. The textures and mineralogy of the banded carbonate- 'chert' veins suggest a near-surface (<3 km) environment of deposition, but their relationship to the fabric of their host rocks indicates they were emplaced in an environment, presumably at considerable depth (5-10 km?), in which the rocks were undergoing intense penetrative deformation. This anomaly is unresolved.
Keywords: Gold, gold mining, gold minralization, Red Lake district, volcanic rocks, subvolcanic intrusive rocks, felsic dykes, synvolcanic alteration zone