Comparative View on the Metallurgy Of the KIVCET-CS and Other Direct Lead Smelting Processes

CIM Bulletin, Vol. 71, No. 799, 1978

K.B. Chaudhuri and G. Melcher, KHD Industrieanlagen AG, Humboldt-Wedag, 5 Koln 91, Wiersbergstr, Federal Republic of Germany

The thermodynamics of the reactions taking place are examined with the aid of equilibrium diagrams for the Pb-O-S system. Based on investigations of chemical, mineralogical and differential-thermo analyses of intermediate products of different desulphuration degrees, an attempt is made to explain the mechanisms of the reactions in the smelting shaft of the KIVCET furnace. The differences between this and other direct lead smelting processes are demonstrated by these thermodynamic and kinetic considerations.Proceeding from these results, the practicability of direct lead smelting processes is discussed with reference to the composition of the primary feed materials to be processed. This comparison also considers the behaviour of minor metals, the products obtained and their characteristics in respect to further treatment.For assessing the operating costs, the over-all energy consumption is considered taking into account various price relations between electric energy and fuels/reductants. Based on the peculiarities of the various processes, an attempt is made to compare the necessary means of meeting the pollution control requirements. The paper concludes with reference to the criteria and problems involved in comparable evaluations.
Keywords: Pyrometallurgy, Smelting processes, Direct reduction, Environmental control.